Though it is a metropolis of more than 11 million people, many people on these shores might never have heard of Wuhan a year ago.
But in 2020 all our lives changed after coronavirus originated in the Chinese city and made its way to the UK.
Here is the story of how coronavirus started in a Wuhan wet market, took the UK in its grip and repeatedly rained blows down on our city.
We have charted when the virus has been out of control in Bristol, the relative lulls – and where we are now.
Timeline: Bristol’s year of Covid
Early reports in November 2019
Reports of a new illness stemmed from the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China.
The source of Covid-19 has not been confirmed, but Chinese scientists believe it to be a bat.
Bats were not sold at the Wuhan market but may have infected live chickens or other animals sold there, and in turn transmitted to humans.
In November last year, several workers at the wet market complained of a fever.
One of the first cases is believed to have been a 55-year-old local who had sought medical help by November 17.
China cases rise in December 2019
As December progressed, more people in Wuhan were falling severely ill, but the cause was unknown.
Dr Li Wenliang, a 34-year-old who worked at Wuhan City Central Hospital, posted his concerns in a chatroom with former medical school classmates in late December.
It is believed there were more than 1,000 cases in China by that point.
China informed the World Health Organisation (WHO) of the outbreak on December 31, but there was a clampdown on discussion of the coronavirus.
Police ordered Dr Li to sign a statement admitting he had acted illegally in sharing his fears.
Spread hits other countries in January
In early January, police shut down the wet market, but the spread was out of control.
The first person known to have died with coronavirus in Wuhan was a 61-year-old man, on January 11. By January 22, the death toll had risen to 22.
International travel continued, with 2,200 people travelling each month from Wuhan to Sydney and 15,000 to Bangkok.
Wuhan was locked down on January 23, no one allowed to leave.
But cases were already being confirmed in other countries, including Thailand, Japan, South Korea and the USA.
By the end of the month it had spread across Europe, and on January 30 there were confirmed cases in the UK – two Chinese nationals at a hotel in York.
Coronavirus becomes a concern in Bristol
It was in January that Bristol had its first coronavirus scares.
A 51-year-old Chinese woman found to have overstayed her visa was at the centre of an incident which led to two Bristol police stations being quarantined.
Patchway and Trinity Road stations were closed for five hours on January 22, following concerns a woman arrested on suspicion of an immigration offence may have had coronavirus, but the fears proved unfounded.
Then, on January 30, footage showed a hazmat unit descending on University of Bristol’s Wills Hall of residence in Stoke Bishop.
A student was rushed to hospital but tested negative for Covid-19.
It was to be more than a month before Bristol had its first confirmed case.
First death outside China confirmed in February
The first death in another country was reported on February 2, in the Philippines.
The Wuhan whistleblower Dr Li Wenliang died with coronavirus on Februrary 7. His wife was pregnant with their second child.
The Chinese death toll was growing rapidly, reaching 1,017 by February 11.
Italy then became the global epicentre of coronavirus. Two deaths in Lombardy were confirmed by February 23, leading to 11 towns being placed on lockdown.
The strict restrictions on Wuhan were easing the spread in China – and on February 26, more new cases (459) were reported outside of China than in it (412).
The UK saw its first case in someone who had not been abroad and was not related to someone with the illness. This Surrey man was diagnosed on February 28.
Pandemic confirmed as UK has first death
By early March, the UK was still yet to close schools. At the time, the Government was not aware of evidence of transmission to or from children.
The UK’s first death with Covid-19 was confirmed on March 5, a woman in her 70s who passed away at the Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading. She had not spent time abroad recently.
The WHO declared a pandemic on March 11, with more than 120,000 cases worldwide.
Coronavirus hits Bristol
Bristol’s first tangible link with the virus came in early March, when an office block in the city centre was deep-cleaned because a worker had tested positive.
The 35-year-old EDF employee, based at Bridgewater House in Finzels Reach, had flown from London to Hong Kong on February 27, then a boat to Shenzhen, where he fell unwell.
After his diagnosis was confirmed, EDF deep-cleaned Bridgewater House as a precaution on March 2.
Four days later, the city had its first confirmed case.
Public Health England (PHE) said: “The case is a resident of Bristol and became infected whilst in north Italy.”
By this time, 15 people in the South West had tested positive.
North Somerset’s first case was confirmed on March 10 and South Gloucestershire‘s on March 11.
Bristol Airport controversy
Bristol Airport was on the end of criticism over an alleged lack of information to those landing there.
A woman who arrived from Milan on March 9 said she was “shocked” by the lack of checks and advice at Bristol Airport.
Rosalba Castiglione, who lives near Kingswood, said: “There was no information telling us to self-isolate, just a map showing us the affected areas in Italy and an NHS advice poster telling people to call 111.”
The official Government advice by that point was for anyone travelling from Italy to self-isolate.
Rosalba said she felt “lost” and several other passengers made complaints about a lack of information at the airport, which declined to comment on the criticism.
Major events near Bristol go ahead
There was criticism of Cheltenham Festival deciding to go ahead, with more than 250,000 people attending between March 10 and 13.
Celebrities including Lee Mack and Andrew Parker Bowles both said they believed their attendance at the event led to them contracting the illness.
The festival organisers pointed out they had complied with Government guidance. The day before it started, the Department of Culture, Media and Sport said there was “no rationale” to postponing events.
And more than 6,000 runners took part in the Bath Half Marathon on March 15, despite calls for it to be cancelled and Bath MP Wera Hobhouse saying it was “simply not worth the risk”.
Organisers said the risk of infection from outdoor events remained low.
Student cases and first death in Bristol
On March 12, the University of Bristol confirmed a student had tested positive for Covid-19 after returning to the city from abroad.
The student was living at Orchard Heights in Frogmore Street, a hall of residence with more than 450 beds.
Unite, which runs Orchard Heights, organised a deep clean and the university postponed studies days later.
By this time, there were five confirmed Bristol cases and 798 across the country.
Nick Matthews, a 59-year-old with underlying health conditions, died in the Bristol Royal Infirmary on March 14.
His wife Mary said she lost her “soul mate” and “best friend” when the retired police officer, from Nailsea, passed away.
On March 23, following weeks of calls for a more decisive response, the UK entered lockdown.
The Prime Minister told the country all non-essential shops would be shut and ordered people to stay home as much as possible.
Bus driver Martin Egan, who was based at First’s Lawrence Hill depot, died on March 28 after falling ill with Covid-19.
By the end of March, Bristol had seen 103 confirmed coronavirus cases and three confirmed deaths.
Throughout April, Bristol’s numbers of positive cases increased rapidly – with more than 600 positive cases by the end of April compared with little more than 100 at the start of the month.
Meanwhile, positive case numbers in South Gloucestershire increased more slowly, and in North Somerset and Bath & North East Somerset slower still. There were fewer than 100 in each local authority area at the start of April, and then 200 to 300 by the end of the month.
On May 1, the number of positive cases in North Somerset was largely parallelling those in neighbouring B&NES – both below South Gloucestershire and well below Bristol’s.
But in the month of May, cases in North Somerset rose rapidly.
At the start of the month, the number of positive cases in North Somerset stood at 234. By May 29, it had almost doubled in just one month, to 441.
This coincided with an outbreak which prompted the health authorities to temporarily close Weston General Hospital to all admissions, as it tried to deal with the number of cases among patients and staff.
A whistleblower later voiced concerns to Bristol Live over the infection control measures at the hospital before the outbreak.
The Government’s data map gives a good indication of how the situation changed in the summer.
The colour code shows how high case rate is. If it’s white, the number of people catching coronavirus is so low – either two, one or zero in an entire week – that the Government statisticians don’t even bother to work out the case rate.
A lime yellow is a case rate below ten, and as the case rate increases, the greens turn to blue. The very highest case rate – anything over 400 cases per 100,000 people in a week – is coloured purple.
The summer ended on an optimistic note, with new cases of coronavirus negligible right across Bristol.
In the week of August 3, the first day of the Government’s Eat Out To Help Out scheme, every single area of Bristol had so few cases as to not trouble the scorers.
By the end of August, as summer turned to autumn, case rates in many parts of the city had begun to rise.
The whites had turned to green in some parts.
At the start of September, eight people had tested positive in Bedminster. This is telling, such a low number in a very populated part of the city, and it meant Bedminster had a case rate of just 80.4.
On September 3, the schools returned. In the third and fourth weeks of September, thousands of students returned to the University of Bristol.
It wasn’t until the end of September that new cases suddenly increased.
Almost all the areas of the city that had been white were green and dark green, and some blue. It would take a couple of weeks for the effect to be seen on the data map.
The most concentrated number of cases was in the heart of Bristol’s student land – Cotham. Where 21 people tested positive for the virus in a seven-day period to October 2, giving a case rate of 234.
Within a week, it was clear Bristol was seeing a level of coronavirus cases that it hadn’t seen in the first wave.
On October 9, the weekly rolling case rate had increased significantly. The leafy student area of Stoke Bishop – home to many of the university’s halls of residence shot to the top of the list.
In the week to October 2, 10 people there had tested positive for coronavirus. In the following seven days, that went from 10 to 262. The rolling case rate of 2,808.6 that week was one of the highest seen in Britain in both waves of the coronavirus pandemic.
Halls of residence were put into quarantine and the second wave had begun.
New cases were massively concentrated in the city centre, Cotham, Clifton and Stoke Bishop – where the students are.
Some areas of the city, especially in the south, still had zero new cases. But the virus wasn’t just spreading in the student areas.
Right across north and east Bristol – from St Pauls to Frenchay and up to Filton and across to Kingswood, case rates were above 100 and climbing. These were areas without large numbers, or maybe any, university students, and yet still dozens of people had caught covid-19 in the first week of October there.
The following week, on October 14, the Government introduced a tier system and while much of the north of England was put into tougher restrictions, Bristol wasn’t – it was in Tier 1 and continued pretty much as normal, with bars and restaurants open, sport being played, people meeting outdoors.
The following day, October 15, Opposition leader Sir Keir Starmer called for a ‘firebreak’ lockdown of two weeks for the end of October to coincide with half term. It had been suggested back in September by the Government’s scientific advisors, but Prime Minister Boris Johnson opted to continue with the tier system for the rest of October.
By the third week of October, the effect of the return of students to the University of the West of England – who arrived a week or two after their Bristol counterparts – could be seen.
In the second week of October, those seven days to October 16 where Bristol’s explosion of cases in the Bristol Uni areas had not prompted a higher Tier for the city, just 35 people in Frenchay and Great Stoke had tested positive for coronavirus. In the next seven days, 183 people did.
By the end of October, the map had turned purple from Staple Hill to Avonmouth and from Filton in the north to Highridge in the south. Barely a handful of areas had case rates below 100, whereas only four weeks earlier, only a handful had case rates above 100.
On October 28, the mayor Marvin Rees and director of public health Christina Gray announced Bristol was in Tier 1-plus, with extra resources to employ ‘Covid marshals’. With the Government still refusing to put Bristol into a higher tier, it was all they could do to portray the severity of the outbreak in the city at that point.
Within a week, the situation across the country had caught up with Bristol and the north of England, and Boris Johnson finally announced, starting on November 5, a four-week national lockdown.
Bristol went into that national lockdown with a city-wide case rate average of 462 cases per 100,000. Lockdown took a while to have any impact – the people testing positive in the second week of November had probably caught the virus before lockdown began.
The case rate rose again, to 489.
It wasn’t until the third and fourth weeks of lockdown that the numbers of new cases began to fall – and that was despite there being more testing than ever going on in the city.
Bristol emerged from lockdown in Tier 3 with a lower case rate than when the city remained in Tier 1 at the end of October.
Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire were all in Tier 3 when lockdown ended for the second time.
With the case rate dropping in Bristol and North Somerset, those two areas were allowed to go down to Tier 2 on December 19, allowing restaurants and pubs to open not just as takeaways.
This was short-lived though, as they returned to Tier 3 just a week later. In the previous seven days, Bristol’s case rate had increased by 26 per cent to 151 per 100,000 people.
North Somerset’s rose by the same percentage, reaching a rate of 149.
It came as the South West started to see a rise in cases of a new, more infectious variant which had already become dominant in the South East.
The South West has seen the new strain spread far slower than some areas, though cases of it still nearly doubled across the region during the month to December 18.
Only 0.11 per cent of people in the region were thought to have the new form of coronavirus on November 18. This reached 0.21 per cent by December 18.
As of December 29, Bristol has a case rate of 193.4, North Somerset 210.2 and South Gloucestershire 192.2.
Throughout the pandemic, 343 people have died in Bristol with Covid-19 on their death certificate, 243 in South Gloucestershire and 197 in North Somerset.
What do you think have been the defining moments of the pandemic in Bristol?
Let us know your thoughts in the comment section below.
You can see the latest coronavirus headlines in Bristol here.